lamina

🍰 An extensible, layer based shader material for ThreeJS

These demos are real, you can click them! They contain the full code, too. 📦

lamina let’s you create materials with a declarative, system of layers. Layers make it incredibly easy to stack and blend effects. This approach was first made popular by the Spline team.

import { LayerMaterial, Color } from 'lamina'

function GradientSphere() {
  return (
    <Sphere>
      <LayerMaterial
        color="#ffffff" //
        shading="physical"
        transmission={1}
      >
        <Depth
          colorA="#810000" //
          colorB="#ffd0d0"
          alpha={0.5}
          mode="multiply"
          near={0}
          far={2}
          origin={[1, 1, 1]}
        />
      </LayerMaterial>
    </Sphere>
  )
}
Show Vanilla example

Lamina can be used with vanilla Three.js. Each layer is just a class.

import { LayerMaterial, Color } from 'lamina/vanilla'

const geometry = new THREE.SphereGeometry(1, 128, 64)
const material = new LayerMaterial({
  color: '#d9d9d9',
  shading: 'physical',
  transmission: 1,
  layers: [
    new Depth({
      colorA: '#002f4b',
      colorB: '#f2fdff',
      alpha: 0.5,
      mode: 'multiply',
      near: 0,
      far: 2,
      origin: new THREE.Vector3(1, 1, 1),
    }),
  ],
})

const mesh = new THREE.Mesh(geometry, material)

Note: To match the colors of the react example, you must convert all colors to Linear encoding like so:

new Depth({
  colorA: new THREE.Color('#002f4b').convertSRGBToLinear(),
  colorB: new THREE.Color('#f2fdff').convertSRGBToLinear(),
  alpha: 0.5,
  mode: 'multiply',
  near: 0,
  far: 2,
  origin: new THREE.Vector3(1, 1, 1),
}),

Layers

LayerMaterial

LayerMaterial can take in the following parameters:

Prop Type Default
name string "LayerMaterial"
color THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
alpha number 1
shading 'phong' | 'physical' | 'toon' | 'basic' | 'lambert' | 'standard' 'basic'
layers* Abstract[] []

The shading prop controls the shading that is applied on the material. The material then accepts all the material properties supported by ThreeJS of the material type specified by the shading prop.

* Note: the layers prop is only available on the LayerMaterial class, not the component. Pass in layers as children in React.

Built-in layers

Here are the layers that lamina currently provides

Name Function
Fragment Layers
Color Flat color.
Depth Depth based gradient.
Fresnel Fresnel shading (strip or rim-lights).
Gradient Linear gradient.
Matcap Load in a Matcap.
Noise White, perlin or simplex noise .
Normal Visualize vertex normals.
Texture Image texture.
Vertex Layers
Displace Displace vertices using. noise

See the section for each layer for the options on it.

Debugger

Lamina comes with a handy debugger that lets you tweek parameters till you’re satisfied with the result! Then, just copy the JSX and paste!

Replace LayerMaterial with DebugLayerMaterial to enable it.

<DebugLayerMaterial color="#ffffff">
  <Depth
    colorA="#810000" //
    colorB="#ffd0d0"
    alpha={0.5}
    mode="multiply"
    near={0}
    far={2}
    origin={[1, 1, 1]}
  />
</DebugLayerMaterial>

Any custom layers are automatically compatible with the debugger. However, for advanced inputs, see the Advanced Usage section.

Writing your own layers

You can write your own layers by extending the Abstract class. The concept if simple:

Each layer can be treated as an isolated shader program that produces a vec4 color.

The color of each layer will be blended together using the specified blend mode. A list of all available blend modes can be found here

// Extend the Abstract layer
class CustomLayer extends Abstract {
  // Define stuff as static properties!

  // Uniforms: Must begin with prefix "u_".
  // Assign them their default value
  static u_color = 'red'
  static u_alpha = 1

  // Define your fragment shader just like you already do!
  // Only difference is, you must return the final color of this layer
  static fragmentShader = `   
    uniform vec3 u_color;
    uniform float u_alpha;

    // Varyings must be prefixed by "v_"
    varying vec3 v_Position;

    vec4 main() {
      // Local variables must be prefixed by "f_"
      vec4 f_color = vec4(u_color, u_alpha)
      return f_color;
    }
  `

  // Optionally Define a vertex shader!
  // Same rules as fragment shaders, except no blend modes.
  static vertexShader = `   
    // Varyings must be prefixed by "v_"
    varying vec3 v_Position;

    void main() {
      v_Position = position;
      return position * 2.;
    }
  `

  constructor(props) {
    // You MUST call `super` with the current constructor as the first argument.
    // Second argument is optional and provides non-uniform parameters like blend mode, name and visibility.
    super(CustomLayer, {
      name: 'CustomLayer',
      ...props,
    })
  }
}

If you need a specialized or advance use-case, see the Advanced Usage section

Using your own layers

Custom layers are Vanilla compatible by default.

To use them with React-three-fiber, you must use the extend function to add the layer to your component library!

import { extend } from "@react-three/fiber"

extend({ CustomLayer })

// ...
const ref = useRef();

// Animate uniforms using a ref
useFrame(({ clock }) => {
  ref.current.color.setRGB(
    Math.sin(clock.elapsedTime),
    Math.cos(clock.elapsedTime),
    Math.sin(clock.elapsedTime),
  )
})

<LayerMaterial>
  <customLayer
    ref={ref}     // Imperative instance of CustomLayer. Can be used to animate unifroms
    args={[]}     // Non uniform arguments, i.e. props param on constructor
    color="green" // Uniforms can be set directly
    alpha={0.5}
  />
</LayerMaterial>

Advanced Usage

For more advanced custom layers, lamina provides the onParse event.

This event runs after the layer’s shader and uniforms are parsed.

This means you can use it to inject functionality that isn’t by the basic layer extension syntax.

Here is a common use case – Adding non-uniform options to layers that directly sub out shader code.

class CustomLayer extends Abstract {
  static u_color = 'red'
  static u_alpha = 1

  static vertexShader = `...`
  static fragmentShader = `
    // ...
    float f_dist = lamina_mapping_template; // Temp value, will be used to inject code later on.
    // ...
  `

  // Get some shader code based off mapping parameter
  static getMapping(mapping) {
    switch (mapping) {
      default:
      case 'uv':
        return `some_shader_code`

      case 'world':
        return `some_other_shader_code`
    }
  }

  // Set non-uniform defaults
  mapping: 'uv' | 'world' = 'uv'

  constructor(props) {
    super(
      CustomLayer,
      {
        name: 'CustomLayer',
        ...props,
      },
      // This is onParse callback
      (self: CustomLayer) => {
        // Add to Leva (debugger) schema.
        // This will create a dropdown select component on the debugger.
        self.schema.push({
          value: self.mapping,
          label: 'mapping',
          options: ['uv', 'world'],
        })

        // Get shader chunk based off selected mapping value
        const mapping = CustomLayer.getMapping(self.mapping)

        // Inject shader chunk in current layer's shader code
        self.fragmentShader = self.fragmentShader.replace('lamina_mapping_template', mapping)
      }
    )
  }
}

Layers

Every layer has these props in common.

Prop Type Default
mode BlendMode "normal"
name string <this.constructor.name>
visible boolean true

All props are optional.

Color

Flat color.

Prop Type Default
color THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "red"
alpha number 1

Normal

Visualize vertex normals

Prop Type Default
direction THREE.Vector3 | [number,number,number] [0, 0, 0]
alpha number 1

Depth

Depth based gradient. Colors are lerp-ed based on mapping props which may have the following values:

  • vector: distance from origin to fragment’s world position.
  • camera: distance from camera to fragment’s world position.
  • world: distance from fragment to center (0, 0, 0).
Prop Type Default
colorA THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
colorB THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "black"
alpha number 1
near number 2
far number 10
origin THREE.Vector3 | [number,number,number] [0, 0, 0]
mapping "vector" | "camera" | "world" "vector"

Fresnel

Fresnel shading.

Prop Type Default
color THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
alpha number 1
power number 0
intensity number 1
bias number 2

Gradient

Linear gradient based off distance from start to end in a specified axes. start and end are points on the axes selected. The distance between start and end is used to lerp the colors.

Prop Type Default
colorA THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
colorB THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "black"
alpha number 1
contrast number 1
start number 1
end number -1
axes "x" | "y" | "z" "x"
mapping "local" | "world" | "uv" "local"

Noise

Various noise functions.

Prop Type Default
colorA THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
colorB THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "black"
colorC THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "white"
colorD THREE.ColorRepresentation | THREE.Color "black"
alpha number 1
scale number 1
offset THREE.Vector3 | [number, number, number] [0, 0, 0]
mapping "local" | "world" | "uv" "local"
type "perlin' | "simplex" | "cell" | "curl" "perlin"

Matcap

Set a Matcap texture.

Prop Type Default
map THREE.Texture undefined
alpha number 1

Texture

Set a texture.

Prop Type Default
map THREE.Texture undefined
alpha number 1

BlendMode

Blend modes currently available in lamina

normal divide
add overlay
subtract screen
multiply softlight
lighten reflect
darken negation

Vertex layers

Layers that affect the vertex shader

Displace

Displace vertices with various noise.

Prop Type Default
strength number 1
scale number 1
mapping "local" | "world" | "uv" "local"
type "perlin' | "simplex" | "cell" | "curl" "perlin"
offset THREE.Vector3 | [number,number,number] [0, 0, 0]

GitHub

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