This project is a recreation of the classic minesweeper game optimised for play on mobile.

The game is playable anonymously, but users can register to have their score saved to the server to be presented to all users on the high score page.

This is a fullstack web application.

Major Technologies used:

  • React
  • Redux
  • Typescript
  • Tailwind CSS
  • Python
  • Django
  • Django REST Framework
  • JWT Authentication


Dev environment

  1. Create a python virtual environment
  python -m venv venv
  1. Activate the virtual environment (Powershell)
  1. Install the dependencies
  python -m pip install -r requirements.txt
  ./frontend/npm install
  1. make the migrations

  python manage.py makemigrations
  python manage.py migrate
  1. run the backend development server (should be running on port 8000)
  python manage.py runserver
  1. run the frontend react development server (should be running on port 3000)

  cd frontend
  npm run start
  1. Navigate to http://localhost:3000 to use the app

Distinctiveness and Complexity


This project is distinctive from all the other projects in CS50Web due to the decoupled nature of using a Frontend application with an API.

This is distinct because there are no other similar style of projects either which are to make a workable web game.

There is no other project in the course that requires the implementation of authentication, or anything that uses JWT to authenticate via an api.


This project satisfies the complexity requirements:

  • The frontend is written entirely in Typescript to obtain type safety.
  • The backend is a Django application with two models.

The complexity of this application comes from the authenitication flow and the complexity of maintaining a quality webpage experience with complex state management.

API Overview:

The frontend application communicates with a Django REST api.

The API has a serializers file which contains the serializers for register, login, token and minesweeper scores

The models file contains the User model and the MinesweeperScore model. The score is linked to the user with a foreign key

The views correspond to the api endpoints below. They are class based views using best practices for Django Rest Framework.

All functionality has been thoroughly tested in the tests folder to ensure their working condition.

The API has the following endpoints:

POST /api/login

  • Request

  "email": "[email protected]",
  "password: "password"
  • Response

    "access": token,
    "refresh": token

POST /api/register

  • Request

  "username" : "billy",
  "email" : "[email protected]",
  "password: "securepassword"
  • Response

  "access": token,
  "refresh": token

GET /api/minesweeper_scores

Retrieves all the minesweeper scores

  • Response

    time: 45
    owner: "billy",
    difficulty: 1
    time: 70
    owner: "amy",
    difficulty: 2

difficulty is a number representing ‘beginner’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘expert’

POST api/minesweeper_scores (token authenication required)

  score: {
    time: 78
    difficulty: 2

The user will be decoded from the jwt token contained in the header of the request


Here you will find descriptions of all the files in the project:


api/__test__/test_models.py This file contains the tests for the models. There are 3 tests to check that the scores are only able to be created correctly.

api/__test__/test_serializers.py This file contains the tests for the serializers. There are two tests: One checks that the player context must be present in order to create. The other checks that it creates when the player context is present

api/__test__/test_views.py This file tests that all the views behave correctly.

The login view must return a json web token to the user when correct credectials are provided. It must also return a 401 if the user does not exist. And finally it shuold return a 401 if the password does not match the users password

The Register view must create a user for a valid request. It should hash the password. It should not create if a user already exists, nor should it create if the email already exists. It must return a 400 if the username email, or password were not passed to the request. And finally it should return a token.

The MinesweeperScoreListCreateView POST request should require the user to pass a token, it should create the token when provided a valid score. The GET request should return the list of scores.

api/migrations/* This has all the autogenerated database migrations created on model changes

api/admin.py The base level admin site, it has registrations for both the scores and the user which admins can change.

api/apps.py Is a simple config file which sets the auto fields and the route namespace

api/models.py The project contains two models. The User model extends from abstract user, utilizes Django’s built in UserManager. the USERNAME_FIELD is set to login using email rather than username. There is some boolean fields to assign users to groups of is_active in order to keep highscores of unregistered users and is_staff for users with higher priveliges

The MinesweeperScore modle has a choice field for difficulty, a foreign key for the User who got the score, a created_at field for a timestamp and a time for the score. The Meta class orders the scores by time when queried.

api/serializers.py The serializers are Django-Rest-Framework serializers. There are 3 serializers in use in the project.

The register serializer handles register requests. It is a simple model serializer but overrides the create method to call the UserManager’s objects.create_user method.

The UsernameTokenObtainPairSerializer is to add additional information to the JSON web tokens. The token encodes the username.

the MinesweeperScoreSerializer is a model serializer to create and read scores. The owner is a read_only field, because the user can be found on the request context. It overrides the create method to get the current user and assign it to the owner field before saving.

api/urls.py This file contains all the api endpoints and assigns them views to handle the responses. There are 4 endpoints to: login, register, refresh the JWT and scores.

api/views.py This file contains all the views for the project.

The LoginView class handles the login route. It inherits from simplejwt tokenobtainpairview and delegates the login logic to the UsernameTokenObtainPairSerializer

The LoginRefreshTokenView inherits from TokenRefreshView from simpljwt to handle refreshing jwt.

The RegisterView class inherits from the CreateAPI view provided by django-rest-framework. The model is set to the User model and the RegisterSerializer handles serialization. The create method is overridden to return the token on register with the same API signature as the LoginView

The MinesweeperScoreListCreateView class inherits from the ListCreateAPIView provided by django-rest-framework. This view handles both a POST request to create a score and a GET request to return a list of scores. The MinesweeperSCoreSerializer handles all the serialization. This route is protected by the IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly permission from django-rest-framework, this means that POST requests must be authenticated but GET requests do not need to be. The create method is overridden to provide the correct context to the serializer.


capstone/asgi.py A django configuration file. Not touched

capstone/settings.py The settings file for the Django project. 3 additional apps are registered here. api, corsheaders and rest_framework. The allowed CORS origin are set to localhost and all ports for the project to allow the frontend and the api to talk to each other. This is mostly default settings.

capstone/urls.py This file provides the base url for the api route and the admin route. The admin route is handled by the default admin site.

capstone/wsgi.py A django configuration file. Not touched.


The files here follow a typical React single page application setup.

frontend/public/index.html This is the root html file for the application. The react app attaches to #root.

frontend/public/images/avatar.png This is an image to represent a user without a photo

frontend/public/favicon.ico The icon for the title, default to create-react-app

frontend/public/robots.txt text file to disallow robot views, default to create-react-app

frontend/package.json This file contains all the libraries and scripts involved in a node project. The scripts are the create-react-app defaults.

frontend/package-lock.json A file to check versions in node_modules and ensure that everything is the correct version

frontend/postcss.config.js This is a config file for PostCSS. PostCSS is required for the Tailwind CSS framework to function correctly. There is default settings here.

frontend/tailwind.config.js Tailwind CSS config. The theme is extended by adding a google font.

frontend/tsconfig.json default typescript config for create-react-app


This folder contains all the source files for the frontend of the project.

src/hooks/useToggle.tsx This is a generic react hook built to allow easy toggling between boolean react state. It exports the state, and functions to handle setting false, true and toggling.

src/useAuth.tsx This is a custom built react hook to handle frontend authentication in the project. It utilizes the react context api

The RequireAuth function is a react higher order component to ensure that the user is authenticated before allowing access to the component. If authentication fails it redirects to the login page and holds to state to redirect to on successful login.

ProvideAuth is the authentication context provider. The value context values are obtained from useProvideAuth.

useAuth wraps the authcontext in a descriptive and easy to use name.

useProvideAuth contains the logic for setting up the authentication. It implements IAuth.

  • It returns the user object, the accessToken, a signIn, signOut and register method. The user, stores an object IUser or false if the user is not logged in.

  • The signIn method calls the API to login, saves the login in the state and tokens in localstorage, finally it calls the callback function provided with the user or error. signOut sets all the state back to the defaults and removes the tokens from localstorage. register works the same as login but provides the extra info to the API on login.

  • On page load it queries local storage for tokens and will automatically login the user if a refresh token is provided. It then sets up an interval to automatically refresh the token within the access token expiry for a seamless experience.

src/useAuth.test.tsx This contains all the tests to ensure the auth can login a user, logout a user and register a user.

src/components/Forms/InputField.tsx This is a generic input field component built to interface with the Formik library. It accepts an icon, placeholder, and type. It contains all the logic to show error messages should they be returned from the form it was submitted from

src/components/Index/IndexPage.tsx This is the default homepage of the app. It is a dumb component which links to other pages in the application.

src/components/Login/LoginPage.tsx This is the login page. It displays a form to login the user. It remembers where the user nagivated from and will redirect them there on success. The login page has validation both on the client side and on the server side. Errors are displayed on their respective fields to provide an enhanced user experience. If the user navigated here upon completing a game, the game state is submitted upon login.

src/components/Register/RegisterPage.tsx Like the login page this page displays a form to register the user. The validation works in the same way as the login page and it will also submit the game state to the server on a registration success.

src/components/MainMenuItem.tsx This file holds two commonly used components in the main menu. They are components to provide default stying to a link and a button. They can take their own class props to define additional classes other than the base styles.

src/components/Modal.tsx This is a modal component which allows an onClose function to be passed, it handles the styling and the propagation behaviour expected of a modal

src/components/Instructions/InstructionsPage.tsx This is the page which gives the user instructions on how to play the game. There are 3 different pages to the instructions. The user can paginate between the 3 pages using the pagination component. It has swipe functionality for mobile devices to help change between the pages.

src/components/Instructions/Pagination.tsx This pagination component accepts a function to go forward, go back and whick page it is. It has an arrow for back and forward. If the user cannot go back then the back arrow is not shown and vice versa. It provides a dots to show which of the pages the user is on using conditional styling.


HallOfFame/HallOfFamePage.tsx This file contains the page component for the game’s highscores. On the page load it will call the api for the current highscores. It will show a list of the highscores filtered by difficulty. It also provides tabs to change the difficulty.

HallOfFame/ScoreListItem.tsx This component will display an individual highscore item. It accepts a time, username, idx (to provide the table style coloring effect) and an optional image.

HallOfFame/Tab.tsx The component to display the tab. It has an active prop and an onclick handler which is passed in. It will apply the stying for the element.


This folder contains all the components responsible for laying out each page

Layouts/BaseLayout.tsx The base layout contains the default header of the application and an outlet to house the different pages of the application.

Layouts/DefaultHeader.tsx This is the top bar of the UI. It will show the username if the current user is logged in. The UI features a dropdown menu which contains links to all the pages in the application. It also allows the user to login/register and logout depending on the login state of the user.


Minesweeper/MinesweeperPage.tsx This is the base page for the minesweeper game. It houses all the main components for the minesweeper game. The game state changes what is shown on the page. If the game is not running a modal is displayed to the user for them to select the difficulty of the game. If the game was finished in a success a modal is shown with the stats and a link to the login page if the user is not logged in. If the game has not started then a difficulty selection modal is displayed. There is a status bar to show the current state of the game with the game board below. There is also a button to toggle the ability to flag and reveal for touch devices.

Minesweeper/StatusWindows/DifficultySelectorWindow.tsx This file contains the difficulty selector component. It will be shown in a modal and contains the buttons to toggle the difficulties.

Minesweeper/StatusWindows/GameLostWindow.tsx This file is the game lost component which will be shown in a modal. It has the ability to reset the game.

Minesweeper/StatusWindows/GameWonWindow.tsx the game won window has a button to reset the game and a link to the login page so the user can save their scores.

Minesweeper/StatusWindows/MinesweeperStatusBar.tsx This component shows the current state of the game. The gamestate is housed in a redux store. This component queries the redux store and will render the time, number of mines remaining and a button to start a new game.

Minesweeper/MinesweeperBoard.tsx This file contains a the logic for checking if the game is over and to clean up state when the game ends. The component checks to see if the game is over on any change in the state and will dispatch the appropriate actions. How the board is rendered will depend on the difficulty that is displayed. The board will render a Tile component for each square on the board. The layout is set using css grid. When the game starts it will start an interval which will dispatch in increment time action.

Minesweeper/Tile/TileComponent.tsx This file contains all the rendering logic for each tile in the game. The tile can be in a flagged, revealed or hidden. And the rendering logic also depends on if the game is running or not. There is a lot of conditional logic to apply different classes based on the current states to get the desired effects. For example if the game is over and the square is a bomb then the tile component will render the bomb but it will be hidden otherwise.

Minesweeper/Tile/utils.ts This has some helper functions to assist in rendering the tiles or revealing the tiles on click. It contains the following functions:

  • findTilesToReveal: This is a helper function which, if the cell has no mines surrounding it will do a depth first search to find all the cells which can be revealed automatically. It returns an array of tiles which should be revealed.

  • getTextColor: This function will return a string with the correct css class to apply based on the value in the cell

  • getTextSize: this function will return the correct css class to apply for the difficulty set


This is where the redux slices will be housed which control the state of the game and the highscores.

features/current-game/constants.ts This file holds the preset options for the three difficulty levels. They will all implement IMinesweeperOptions.

features/current-game/currentGameSlice.ts This file has the slice of state which represents the game of minesweeper. The slices are made using the reduxtoolkit package. It contains the initialState contant and the reducers to set difficulty, update time, get options, highlight and remove highlights from a tile, flag and reveal tiles, increment the time, update the mines remaining, toggle flag, start/end and reset the game.

features/current-game/currentGameSlice.test.ts This has a simple test to check that the game gets set with the correct amount of mines.

features/current-game/interfaces.ts This file contains typescript interfaces, types and enums for type safety in the frontend of the project. There is one for the gamestate, tile, minestatus, minesweeper options, difficulty, gamestates and gameproperties.

features/current-game/utils.ts This file contains utility functions which are useful when running the game of minesweeper.

  • It has a function to generate the initial board: this function will create a 2D array with a number of tiles stated as mines
  • It has a function to get the neighbors of the tiles. This avoids any boundary conditions of the array.
  • It has a simple function to get the initial mines remaining in a given game.

features/game-history/gameHistorySlice.ts This file contains all the logic to handle the highscores page. It has the state as a redux store and helper functions:

  • fetchGameHistory is a thunk to get the highscores from the api
  • postGameScore is a thunk to post a game score to the api
  • makeGamePayloadFromDTO is a helper function to convert the api response into a response for the state
  • gameHistorySlice is the slice of state. It has reducers to add a game and a fulfilled fetch of data.


interfaces/IAuth.ts This file contains the relevant interfaces for the authentication hook. It has the following interfaces: IAuth, IToken, ILoginSuccessDTO, IRegisterFailDTO, ILoginFailDTO, IUser

interfaces/IMessage.ts This has the interface that the error messages must use

interfaces/MinesweeperScoreDTO.ts This file has the interfaces of the data transfer objects used. This is to help when communicating between the API. It has an enum minesweeperAPIDifficultyTypes, the interface POSTMinesweeperScoreDTO and GETMinesweeperScoreDTO.


src/services/api/api.ts This has the axios configuration which will be used throughout the application

src/utils/constants.ts This has constants for the api which is used throughout the application to have a single source of truth

src/utils/lib.ts This has some utility functions:

  • secondsToMinsAndSeconds: Converts seconds to an object containing the number of minutes and the number of seconds
  • formatMinsAndSeconds: takes a number of minutes and a number of seconds and returns a string to display the time

src/App.tsx This file is the root react component from which the app begins. It contains has the user provider and the routes using react router.

src/index.css This has some css classes built with tailwind css for common features such as buttons and to import the custom google font

src/index.tsx This is the file which renders the react app to the dom. It also provides the redux store to the application.

src/react-app-env.d.ts A default file created with create react app which references the react scripts

src/reportWebVitals.ts Default file provided with create react app

src/setupTests.ts configuration file for jest testing with react

src/store.ts This is the root redux store which imports the currentGame and gameHistory slices described earlier.


I hope you enjoy using the app. Experiment with some of the error handling in the forms and using the game on mobile.


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